In press

Appel, M., & Weber, S. (in press). Do mass mediated stereotypes harm members of negatively stereotyped groups? A meta-analytical review on media-generated stereotype threat and stereotype lift. Communication Research. [pdf]

Marker, C., Gnambs, T., & Appel, M. (in press). Exploring the myth of the chubby gamer: A meta-analysis on sedentary video gaming and body mass. Social Science and Medicine. [pdf]


Appel, M., Izydorczyk, D., Weber, S., Mara, M., & Lischetzke, T. (2020). The uncanny of mind in a machine: Humanoid robots as tools, agents, and experiencers. Computers in Human Behavior, 102, 274-286. [pdf]

Appel, M., Marker, C., & Gnambs, T. (2020). Are social media ruining our lives? A review of meta-analytic evidence. Review of General Psychology, 24, 60-74.  [pdf]

Gnambs, T., Stasielowicz, L., Wolter, I., & Appel, M. (2020). Do computer games jeopardize educational outcomes? A prospective study on gaming times and academic achievement. Psychology of Popular Media, 9, 69-82. [pdf]

Krause, S., & Appel, M. (2020). Stories and the self: Assimilation, contrast, and the role of being transported into the narrative world. Journal of Media Psychology, 32, 47–58. [pdf]

Stein, J.-P., Appel, M., Jost, A., & Ohler, P. (2020). Matter over mind? How the acceptance of digital entities depends on their appearance, mental prowess, and the interaction between both. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 142, 102463.

Tiede, K., & Appel, M. (2020). Reviews, expectations, and the experience of stories. Media Psychology 23, 365-390. [pdf]


Appel, M., & Gnambs, T. (2019). Shyness and social media use: A meta-analytic summary of moderating and mediating effects. Computers in Human Behavior, 98, 294-301. [pdf]

Appel, M., Krisch, N., Stein, J. P., & Weber, S. (2019). Smartphone zombies! Pedestrians’ distracted walking as a function of their fear of missing out. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 63, 130-133. [pdf]

Appel, M., Marker, C., & Mara, M. (2019). Otakuism and the appeal of sex robots. Frontiers in Psychology, 10:569. [pdf]

Appel, M., Schreiner, C., Isberner, M.-B., & Richter, T. (2019). The mediating role of event-congruent emotions in narrative persuasion. Poetics, 77, 101385. [pdf]

Appel, M., Slater, M. D., & Oliver, M. B. (2019). Repelled by virtue? The dark triad and eudaimonic narratives. Media Psychology, 22, 769-794. [pdf]

Gnambs, T., & Appel, M. (2019). Are robots becoming unpopular? Changes in attitudes towards autonomous robotic systems in Europe. Computers in Human Behavior, 93, 53-61. [link]

Isberner, M.-B., Richter, T., Schreiner, C., Eisenbach, Y., Sommer, C., & Appel, M. (2019). Empowering stories: Transportation into narratives with strong protagonists increases self-related control beliefs. Discourse Processes, 56, 575-598. [pdf]

Slater, M. D., Oliver, M. B., & Appel, M. (2019). Poignancy and mediated wisdom of experience: Narrative impacts on willingness to accept delayed rewards. Communication Research, 46, 333-354. [link]


Appel, M., Schreiner, C., Weber, S., Mara, M., & Gnambs, T (2018). Intensity of Facebook use is associated with lower self-concept clarity: Cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence. Journal of Media Psychology, 30, 160-172. [pdf]

Gnambs, T., & Appel, M. (2018). Narcissism and social networking behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality, 86, 200-212. [pdf]

Marker, C., Gnambs, T., Appel, M. (2018). Active on Facebook and failing at school? Meta-analytic findings on the relationship between online social networking activities and academic achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 30, 651-677. [pdf]

Oliver, M. B., Raney, A. A., Slater, M. D., Appel, M., Hartmann, T., Bartsch, A., Schneider, F. M., Janicke, S. H., Krämer, N., Mares, M.-L., Vorderer, P., Rieger, D., Dale, K. R., & Das, E. (2018). Self-transcendent media experiences: Taking meaningful media to a higher level. Journal of Communication, 68, 380-389.

Schreiner, C., Appel, M., Isberner M.-B., & Richter, T. (2018). Argument strength and the persuasiveness of stories. Discourse Processes, 55, 371-386. [pdf]

Slater, M. D., Oliver, M. B., Appel, M., Tchernev, J. M., & Silver, N. A. (2018). Mediated wisdom of experience revisited: Delay discounting, acceptance of death, and closeness to future self. Human Communication Research, 44, 80-101.

Weber, S., Kronberger, N., & Appel, M. (2018). Immigrant students’ educational trajectories: The influence of cultural identity and stereotype threat. Self & Identity, 17, 211-235. [pdf]

Weichhart, G., Stary, C., & Appel, M. (2018). The Digital Dalton Plan: Progressive education as integral part of web-based learning environments. Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 10, 25–52.


Gebbers, T., De Wit, J., & Appel, M. (2017). Transportation into narrative worlds and the motivation to change health-related behavior. International Journal of Communication, 11, 21. [pdf]

Gnambs, T. & Appel, M. (2017). Is computer gaming associated with cognitive abilities? A population study among German adolescents. Intelligence, 61, 19-28. [pdf]

Lischetzke, T., Izydorczyk, D., Hüller, C., & Appel, M. (2017). The topography of the uncanny valley and individuals’ need for structure: A nonlinear mixed effects analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 68, 96-113. [pdf]


Appel, M. (2016). „Immer online, immer allein?“ – Zu den Auswirkungen des digitalen Wandels. In W. Lenhard (Hrsg.), Verhaltensstörungen im Jugendalter: Ausgewählte Determinanten und Phänomene (S. 58-65). Heidelberg: Springer.

Appel, M., Krause, S., Gleich, U., & Mara, M. (2016). Meaning through fiction: Science Fiction and innovative technologies. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 10, 472-480. [pdf]

Batinic, B., Appel, M., & Gnambs, T. (2016). Examining individual differences in interpersonal influence: On the psychometric properties of the Generalized Opinion Leadership Scale (GOLS). Journal of Psychology: Inderdisciplinary and Applied, 150, 88-101[pdf]


Appel, M., Gnambs, T., Richter, T., & Green, M. (2015). The Transportation Scale-Short Form (TS-SF). Media Psychology, 18, 243-266. [pdf]

Appel, M. & Schreiner, C. (2015). Leben in einer digitalen Welt: Wissenschaftliche Befundlage und problematische Fehlschlüsse. Stellungnahme zur Erwiderung von Spitzer (2015). Psychologische Rundschau, 66, 119-123. [pdf]

Appel, M., Weber, S., & Kronberger, N. (2015). The influence of stereotype threat on immigrants: Review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 6:900. [pdf]

Gnambs, T., Appel, M., & Kaspar, K. (2015). The effect of the color red on encoding and retrieval of declarative knowledge. Learning and Individual Differences, 42, 90-96. [pdf]

Gnambs, T., Appel, M., & Oeberst, A. (2015). Color red and risk-taking in online environments. PLOS ONE, 10(7): e0134033. [pdf]

Mara, M. & Appel, M. (2015). Science fiction reduces the eeriness of android robots: A field experiment. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 156-162. [pdf]

Mara, M. & Appel, M. (2015). Effects of lateral head tilt on user perceptions of android robots. Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 326-334. [link]

Mara, M. & Appel, M. (2015). Roboter im Gruselgraben. Warum uns menschenähnliche Maschinen oft unheimlich sind. In-Mind. [pdf]

Weber, S., Appel, M., & Kronberger, N. (2016). Stereotype threat and the cognitive performance of adolescent immigrants: The role of cultural identity strength. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 42, 71-81. [pdf]


Appel, M., Mara, M., & Weber, S. (2014). Media and Identity. In M. B. Oliver & A. Raney (Eds.), Media and Social Life (pp.16-28). New York: Routledge.

Appel, M. & Schreiner, C. (2014). Digitale Demenz? Mythen und wissenschaftliche Befundlage zur Auswirkung von Internetnutzung. Psychologische Rundschau, 65, 1-10. [pdf]

Appel, M., Stiglbauer, B., Batinic, B., & Holtz, P. (2014). Internet use and verbal aggression: The moderating role of parents and peers. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 235-241. [pdf]

Gnambs, T., Appel, M., Schreiner, C., Richter, T., & Isberner, M.-B. (2014). Experiencing narrative worlds: A latent state-trait analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 187-192. [pdf]

Horwath, I., Kronberger, N., & Appel, M. (2014). Similar but different? Cognitive differences in the discussion of women in science and technology. In W. Ernst & I. Horwath (Eds.), For Future Innovations: Gender in Science and Technology (pp. 205-234). Bielefeld: Transcript.

Richter, T., Appel, M., & Calio, F. (2014). Stories can influence the self-concept. Social Influence, 9, 172-188. [pdf]


Appel, M. & Mara, M. (2013). The persuasive influence of a fictional character’s trustworthiness. Journal of Communication, 63, 912-932. [pdf]

Appel, M., Richter, T., Mara, M., & Lindinger, C., & Batinic, B. (2013). Whom to tell a moving story? Personality and persuasion profiling in the field of narrative persuasion. In C. P. Haugtvedt & D. Ewoldsen, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Persuasive Technology: Persuasive Technology and Design: Enhancing Sustainability and Health. ACM Conference Proceedings.

Batinic, B. & Appel, M. (2013). Mass communication, social influence, and consumer behavior: Two field experiments. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 1353–1368. [link]

Mara, M., Appel, M., Ogawa, H., Lindinger, C., Ogawa, E., Ishiguro, H., & Ogawa, K. (2013). Tell me your story, robot: introducing an android as fiction character leads to higher perceived usefulness and adoption intention. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction (pp. 193-194). IEEE Press.


Appel, M. (2012). Are heavy users of computer games and social media more computer literate? Computers & Education, 59, 1339-1350. [pdf]

Appel, M. (2012). Anti-immigrant propaganda by radical right parties and the intellectual performance of adolescents. Political Psychology, 33, 483-493. [pdf]

Appel, M., Gnambs, T., & Maio, G. R. (2012). A short measure of the need for affect. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 418-426. [pdf]

Appel, M., Holtz, P., Stiglbauer, B., & Batinic, B. (2012). Parents as a resource: Communication quality affects the relationship between adolescents’ Internet use and loneliness. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 1641-1648. [pdf]

Appel, M. & Kronberger, N. (2012). Stereotype threat and the achievement gap: Stereotype threat prior to test taking. Educational Psychology Review, 24, 609-635. [pdf]

Appel, M. & Maleckar, B. (2012). The influence of paratext on narrative persuasion. Fact, fiction, or fake? Human Communication Research, 38, 459-484. [pdf]

Appel, M., Mara, M., & Odag, Ö. (2012). Persuasion durch Unterhaltungsangebote. In L. Reinecke & S. Trepte (Hrsg.), Unterhaltung in neuen Medien (S. 344-360). Köln: von Halem.


Appel, M. (2011). A story about a stupid person can make you act stupid (or smart): Behavioral assimilation (and contrast) as narrative impact. Media Psychology, 14, 144-167. [pdf]

Appel, M. & Jodlbauer, S. (2011). The effects of media violence. In D. Christie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology (pp. 621-625). Wiley-Blackwell.

Appel, M., Kronberger, N., & Aronson, J. (2011). Stereotype Threat impedes ability building: Effects on test preparation among women in science and technology. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 904-913. [pdf]

Holtz, P. & Appel, M. (2011). Internet use and video gaming predict problem behavior in early adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 49-58. [pdf]


Appel, M. & Richter, T. (2010). Transportation and need for affect in narrative persuasion: A mediated moderation model. Media Psychology, 13, 101-135. [pdf]

Appel, M. & Richter, T. (2010). Wirken “pure Emotionen” auf alle Rezipienten/innen gleichermaßen überzeugend? Zur Wirkung von Stories aus Perspektive der politischen Kommunikation. In C. Schemer, W. Wirth, & C. Wünsch (Hrsg.), Politische Kommunikation. Wahrnehmung, Verarbeitung, Wirkung (pp. 115-130). Baden-Baden: Nomos.

Bartsch, A., Appel, M. & Storch, D. (2010). Predicting emotions and meta-emotions at the movies. The role of the need for affect in audiences’ experience of horror and drama. Communication Research, 37, 167-190. [link]

Gnambs, T., Appel, M., & Batinic, B. (2010). Color red in web-based knowledge testing. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1625-1631.

2009 and older

Batinic, B. & Appel, M. (2009). Online-Bewerbungen aus Sicht von Bewerbern und Unternehmen. Zeitschrift für Personalpsychologie, 8, 14-23.

Appel, M. (2008). Fictional narratives cultivate just world beliefs. Journal of Communication, 58, 62-83. [pdf]

Appel, M. (2008). Manche mögen´s heiß. Ergebnisse der deutschsprachigen Version eines Instruments zur Erfassung des Emotionsmotivs (need for emotion / need for affect). Diagnostica, 54, 2-15. [pdf]

Appel, M. (2008). Constanze Rossmann: Fiktion Wirklichkeit. Ein Modell der Informationsverarbeitung im Kultivierungsprozess. Wiesbaden: VS. Publizistik, 53, 423-424. (Rezension)

Appel, M. (2008). Andrea Claudia Hoffmann: Kopfkino. Wie Medien unsere Träume erfüllen. Konstanz: UVK. Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaft, 56, 474-475. (Rezension)

Appel, M. (2008). Medien-vermittelte Stereotype und Vorurteile. In B. Batinic & M. Appel (Hrsg.), Medienpsychologie (S. 113-136). Berlin: Springer.

Appel, M. & Richter, T. (2008). Der Sleeper-Effekt. In N.C. Krämer, S. Schwan, D. Unz & M. Suckfüll (Hrsg.), Schlüsselbegriffe der Medienpsychologie (S. 284-289). Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.

Batinic, B. & Appel, M. (Hrsg.) (2008). Lehrbuch Medienpsychologie. Berlin: Springer.

Appel, M. (2007). Persuasion durch Fiktionen: Kurz- und mittelfristige Wirkungen auf (stereotype) Überzeugungen, In S. Trepte & E. Witte (Hrsg.), Sozialpsychologie und Medien: Von Persuasion bis CMC (S. 60-80). Berlin: Pabst.

Appel, M. (2007). Some ideas on learning through (micro-) narratives. In M. Lindner & P. A. Bruck (Eds.), Micromedia and corporate learning. Proceedings of the 3rd International Microlearning Conference (pp. 142-149). Innsbruck: Innsbruck University Press.

Appel, M., Kronberger, N., Wiesner, A. & Batinic, B. (2007). Gender difference in technological sciences as self-fulfilling prophecies: Stereotype Threat in e-learning. In K. Siebenhandl, M. Wagner & S. Zauchner (Eds.), Gender in e-learning and educational games (pp. 85-89). Innsbruck: Studienverlag.

Appel, M. & Richter, T. (2007). Persuasive effects of fictional narratives increase over time. Media Psychology, 10, 113-134. [pdf]

Appel, M. (2005). Realität durch Fiktionen. Rezeptionserleben, Medienkompetenz und Überzeugungsänderungen. Dissertation. Berlin: Logos.

Appel, M., Koch, E. & Schreier, M. (2003). Biologisches versus soziales Geschlecht: Modelle, Diagnose, Wertung. Kölner Psychologische Studien, 8, 1-57.

Appel, M., Koch, E., Schreier, M. & Groeben, N. (2002). Aspekte des Leseerlebens: Skalenentwicklung. Zeitschrift für Medienpsychologie, 14, 149-154.

Schreier, M. & Appel, M. (2002). Realitäts-Fiktions-Unterscheidungen als Aspekt einer kritisch-konstruktiven Mediennutzungskompetenz. In N. Groeben & B. Hurrelmann (Hrsg.), Medienkompetenz. Voraussetzungen, Dimensionen, Funktionen (S. 231-254). Weinheim: Juventa.